Archive for the ‘Taquete and Turned Taquete’ category

Warp Painting: Turned Taqueté & Plain Weave

December 5, 2015

A painted warp is beautiful even before you weave anything with it!  I tried warp painting with Turned Taqueté since I already explored this weave and variations of it this year.  As an afterthought I also tried it with plain weave and the awesome result turned out to be anything but plain.

My first experience with fabric and yarn dyeing and painting comes from a surface design course I took many years ago at Parsons in NYC taught by Jason Pollen.  It was then that I learned about fiber reactive dyes and the different ways that they can be used.  I later did a lot of immersion dyeing (dip dyeing) of yarns and dabbled a bit in warp painting too.  It’s only recently when I started working with Turned Taqueté that I was inclined to try warp painting again.

I use Pro (Procion) MX fiber reactive dyes that are good for cotton, Tencel and other plant based fibers as well as for silk.  They can also be used for wool but that requires a different procedure.  For my warp painting projects I basically follow the directions on Pro Chemical & Dye company’s instruction sheet, “Warp Painting on Cotton and Silk.”  I follow all the recommended safety guidelines including using a dust respirator when I’m handling powdered dyes.  In deciding which basic colors to get that can be mixed to create my own palette, I consulted Paula Birch’s superb website, “All About Hand Dyeing,” where you can find a wealth of dyeing information.

Following are photos, a draft, and notes about the two painted warp projects that I designed and wove.  One is a 12-shaft Tencel, Turned Taqueté scarf and the other one is a cotton, plain weave scarf.

Painted Warp Turned Taqueté Scarf

The finished scarf:

Painted Warp Turned Taquete Scarf, 12 shafts, Tencel, 2015

Painted Warp Turned Taquete Scarf, 12 shafts, Tencel, 2015

Painted Warp Turned Taquete Scarf, 12 shafts, Tencel, 2015 (close-up)

Painted Warp Turned Taquete Scarf, 12 shafts, Tencel, 2015 (close-up)

The scarf in progress on the loom with insets showing the painted warp in the plastic bin I used to paint it in covered with plastic wrap, and on the drying rack:

Painted Warp Turned Taquete Scarf, 12 shafts, Tencel, 2015 (work in progress)

Painted Warp Turned Taquete Scarf, 12 shafts, Tencel, 2015 (work in progress)

In many of the articles that I read about warp painting with fiber reactive dyes, it’s recommended that the warp be laid down on a table lined with plastic wrap, painting it, rolling it up in the plastic wrap and letting it “cure” or set for about 24 hours in a closed container.  Melissa’s Tangible Daydreams blog post, “Tutorial: Warp Painting,” is excellent in describing this process especially for long warps and has other very helpful information.  As you can see in the photo above, I did it a little differently – because my warp was not very long I painted it inside a long plastic bin, covered it with plastic wrap, closed the bin and let it set for 24 hours, washed it afterwards many times as recommended in the instruction sheet, and then let it hang to dry on a rack.  If you want a more precise pattern painted on the warp then you will need to stretch out the warp and use a dye thickener to prevent the colors from running into each other.  If you want the opposite effect so that the colors flow and run into each other you can dip dye sections of the warp.  I think what I did is somewhere in between these two methods.

I designed the Turned Taqueté draft shown below on 12 shafts for this scarf.  If you use weaving software and would like me to email the WIF file to you for your personal use, I’m happy to do so, just let me know.  I shared this draft with a fellow weaver and you can read her humorous take on it at this link.

Draft for 12-shaft Painted Warp Turned Taquete Scarf

Draft for 12-shaft Painted Warp Turned Taquete Scarf

A few notes about how I wove this scarf:  I wound two warps of 8/2 white Tencel, one painted with several colors that I mixed as I went along and dip dyed the other warp in a light grey color.  I also dip dyed a skein of 20/2 white Tencel in the same light grey to be used as the weft.  The sett is 40 epi and about 30 ppi woven with a firm beat.  The scarf was wet finished by washing by hand, air dried completely, and then steam ironed.

UPDATE March 2016:  I am fortunate to have received the Complex Weavers award for this painted warp Turned Taqueté scarf at the Philadelphia Guild of Handweavers “Celebration of Fibers” annual member exhibit, March 11 – March 20, 2016.  The photos of the scarf are posted on the Complex Weavers website gallery awards page and the wif file can be downloaded from there.

Painted Warp Plain Weave Scarf

I had some leftover dye solutions and thought that I may as well use them up so I wound a warp using some white cotton slub yarn from my stash, washed it well to remove any sizing that would hinder the dyes from reacting with the yarn, and wove it up in plain weave using a thin, mauve colored rayon bouclé yarn (I think) for the weft.  The sett for this scarf is 18 epi and about 16 ppi, woven with a light beat.  After wet finishing the same way as the other scarf, I was amazed at how well it draped as plain weave can be a little stiff, but I think that the combination of these yarns and the open weave helped make it drape nicely after wet finishing.

The finished scarf:

Painted Warp Plain Weave Scarf, cotton & rayon, 2015

Painted Warp Plain Weave Scarf, cotton & rayon, 2015

Painted Warp Plain Weave Scarf, cotton & rayon, 2015 (close-up)

Painted Warp Plain Weave Scarf, cotton & rayon, 2015 (close-up)

Here’s how it looked as I was weaving it on the loom, notice how open the weave is before wet finishing:

Painted Warp Plain Weave Scarf, cotton & rayon, 2015 (work in progress on the loom)

Painted Warp Plain Weave Scarf, cotton & rayon, 2015 (work in progress on the loom)

And here’s the lovely painted warp for this scarf as it’s drying on the rack (I painted the colors more randomly than I did for the other scarf):

Painted Warp for Plain Weave Scarf, (drying on the rack)

Painted Warp for Plain Weave Scarf, (drying on the rack)

The inspiration for the colors I chose to use for both of these scarves came from the natural beauty in our backyard this past autumn:

Inspiring autumn colors - purple Beautyberry, red Burning Bush, yellow Pawpaw, green Pine, brown earth & blue sky

Inspiring autumn colors – purple Beautyberry, red Burning Bush, yellow Pawpaw, green Pine, brown earth & blue sky

Best wishes to all my readers for a safe and joyful holiday season and for a happy and healthy New Year.

UPDATE December 13, 2015:  This year I had the privilege of once again showing my work at the Jill Beech open studio.  Jill is a ceramic artist and sculptor whose beautiful and inspiring work I greatly admire.  There’s an article about Jill and her work in the December 9, 2015 Unionville Times where my name is also mentioned, “Art Watch: Jill Beech’s natural curiosities.” heart

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Turned Taqueté Variations

August 21, 2015

The next step in my weaving experience with turned taqueté was to try some variations.  While I was browsing through Marian Stubenitsky’s amazingly beautiful book, Weaving with Echo and Iris, I came across an 8-shaft draft in Chapter 7 of a turned taqueté variation with a different interval – the threading is designed with an interval of 3 instead of the usual 4 as in true turned taqueté.  I designed a few drafts this way on 8 shafts, chose one I liked and wove some yardage.  I also experimented with another turned taqueté variation that was inspired by my fascination with interleaved threadings.  The drafts I designed this way looked very interesting and so this time I chose a 12-shaft draft that I liked and wove some yardage as well.  Following are photos, drafts, and notes of these two fun projects.

Turned Taqueté Variation – 8 Shafts

First, here are photos of the woven work:

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 8 shafts, Tencel & cotton, 2015 (blue weft version)

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 8 shafts, Tencel & cotton, 2015 (blue weft version)

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 8 shafts, Tencel & cotton, 2015 (blue weft version on the loom)

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 8 shafts, Tencel & cotton, 2015 (blue weft version on the loom)

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 8 shafts, Tencel, cotton & rayon, 2015 (yellow weft version)

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 8 shafts, Tencel, cotton & rayon, 2015 (yellow weft version)

And here are images of the profile draft and a partial thread-by-thread draft:

PROFILE DRAFT for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Variation

PROFILE DRAFT for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Variation

Partial thread-by-thread draft for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Variation

Partial thread-by-thread draft for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Variation

The thread-by-thread draft is generated from the profile draft.  When using Fiberworks PCW weaving software, the threading design line in the profile draft is first networked (initial 2) and then extended parallel repeat (shafts shifting by 3 not 4).  The treadling is generated by simply adding plain weave, as you can see in the partial thread-by-thread draft.  I wasn’t sure if I did this correctly so I emailed Marian and asked her about it, and she assured me that I did it well.  I can email the WIF file of the complete draft to anyone who requests it.

Additional notes:  I used the same warp to weave both the fabric with the blue weft and the fabric with the yellow weft, alternating 8/2 Tencel (variegated colors of dark browns, reds, and purples) and 2 strands together of 20/2 off-white cotton.  The blue weft is 20/2 cotton (only 1 strand, not 2 together) and the yellow weft is 20/2 rayon (also just 1 strand).  The sett is 40 epi and about 28 ppi.  I used a 20 dent reed, 2 ends per dent, but you can probably use a reed that’s not as fine and be able to avoid getting reed marks after wet finishing.  However, I would recommend weaving a sample first and resleying if necessary because in this particular variation the finished fabric looks much better if certain warp ends are sleyed together in the same dent.  For example, with my 20 dent reed I sleyed together in the same dent the ends on shafts 1&4, 2&5, etc. rather than 4&2, 5&1 etc.  I think the reason for this is the way certain warp threads slide together here.

I washed the yardage by hand, spin dried in the washer, hung to dry and steam ironed.  The pattern became a little less sharp than before wet finishing.  The first photo above of the fabric viewed from a distance was taken after wet finishing while the close-ups were taken before wet finishing.

I was going to make something functional from these fabrics, but for now I enjoy just looking at them as they are.

Turned Taqueté Variation – 12 Shafts

Here are photos of the woven work for this project:

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric for pillow woven on 12 shafts, pearl cotton warp & acryllic weft, 2015

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric for pillow woven on 12 shafts, pearl cotton warp & acrylic weft, 2015

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 12 shafts, pearl cotton warp, acryllic weft, 2015

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 12 shafts, pearl cotton warp, acrylic weft, 2015

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 12 shafts, pearl cotton warp, acrylic weft, 2015 (close-up)

Turned Taquete Variation, fabric woven on 12 shafts, pearl cotton warp, acrylic weft, 2015 (close-up)

The warp is wound with 4 different colors of 5/2 pearl cotton yarn.  You may also notice the rug in the photo, that is a summer & winter, weft-faced taqueté rug that I wove years ago:

Winding the pearl cotton warp

Winding the pearl cotton warp

I used a profile draft here too but made revisions to the final thread-by-thread draft until it looked like this (I can email the WIF file for this draft too to anyone who requests it):

Draft for 12-shaft Turned Taquete Variation (view with corrected aspect ratio)

Draft for 12-shaft Turned Taquete Variation (view with corrected aspect ratio)

Partial thread-by-thread draft for 12-shaft Turned Taquete Variation (interlacement view)

Partial thread-by-thread draft for 12-shaft Turned Taquete Variation (interlacement view)

As mentioned earlier, I designed this variation by interleaving two threadings, actually I interleaved the same threading with itself.  It may look like a turned polychrome taqueté, but Bonnie Inouye pointed out to me that the threading and tie-up would look different if that was the case.

Additional Notes:  I originally wove some yardage using this draft with a very close sett of 20/2 cotton but was not satisfied with how it looked.  So then I resleyed part of it with a wider sett and tied on the thicker and more lustrous 5/2 pearl cotton warp.  I really like the way the four different bright colors in the warp mix with one another when they are woven together this way.  The sett is 28 epi and about 20 ppi.  For the weft I used a lofty white 20/2 acrylic yarn that I had in my stash.  Wet finishing is the same as for the 8-shaft turned taqueté variation.  I really like the little pillow I made from this yardage!

I’m not done yet with exploring turned taqueté.  What’s next?  Maybe a painted warp?  Until then…happy weaving everyone!

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Turned Taqueté!

April 6, 2015

This year I learned to design and weave turned taqueté, a warp-faced or warp-emphasis weave – I love it!  In the past I wove weft-faced taqueté rugs and now, what inspired me to explore turned taqueté is Bonnie Inouye’s article, “Turned Taqueté: an Introduction,” published by Complex Weavers in the June 2014 issue of the Complex Weavers Journal.  Bonnie’s article has everything you need to know about this versatile weave to get you started.  You can view images from her article including downloadable WIF files of the drafts (but not the text) on the June 2014 Gallery page of the Complex Weavers website.  Bonnie also contributed two 4-shaft turned taqueté drafts to handweaving.net that can also be viewed online, one is a checkerboard pattern with two clean threading blocks and the other one is a flame pattern with four overlapping threading blocks.

Keeping in mind Bonnie’s suggestions that for scarves the sett should be between twill and double weave and the weft should be much finer than the warp, I began my quest.  I wove a few samples trying out the clean checkerboard pattern first but decided to continue exploring with overlapping threading blocks that I liked better.  I ended up designing and weaving a few 8 and 12-shaft patterns this way.  In this post I’m happy to share photos, drafts and notes of an 8-shaft scarf, a photo of a placemat woven on the same threading, and photos of another scarf woven on 12 shafts.

Here are photos of the 8-shaft Turned Taqueté Scarf:

Turned Taquete Scarf woven on 8 shafts, Tencel & rayon, 2015

Turned Taquete Scarf woven on 8 shafts, Tencel & rayon, 2015

Turned Taquete Scarf woven on 8 shafts, Tencel & rayon, 2015 (detail)

Turned Taquete Scarf woven on 8 shafts, Tencel & rayon, 2015 (detail)

I started by designing this Profile Draft:

PROFILE DRAFT for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Scarf

PROFILE DRAFT for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Scarf

The thread-by-thread draft is derived from the Profile Draft, easily generated by weaving software in several steps.  Bonnie gives clear directions about how to do this in her article.  This is how it looks using Fiberworks:

Thread-by-thread draft for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Scarf

Thread-by-thread draft for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Scarf

Here’s a close-up of the upper right hand section of the above draft:

Partial thread-by-thread draft for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Scarf (interlacement view)

Partial thread-by-thread draft for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Scarf (interlacement view)

This next draft shows the structure of turned taqueté, recognizable by the letters “T” turned on their side:

Partial thread-by-thread draft for Turned Taquete Scarf (structure view showing sideways T's)

Partial thread-by-thread draft for Turned Taquete Scarf (structure view showing sideways T’s)

My thread-by-thread draft is not easily readable as shown so I made separate threading and treadling drafts that are even larger and clearer to read when you click on them.  I can also email the WIF file to anyone who requests it.  Note that the threading draft may be threaded as is for this scarf, but each block in the treadling draft should be repeated more than one time (I did it 3 times for this scarf) to achieve a more elongated pattern.  For example, reading the treadling draft from the bottom to the top and starting with the column on the far right, repeat three times:  1,4,2,4; then repeat three times:  1,5,2,5 and so on.  Repeat the entire treadling draft as many times as you wish depending on how long you want the scarf to be.  Here are the threading and treadling drafts including the tie-up:

Threading Draft for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Scarf

Threading Draft for 8-shaft Turned Taquete Scarf

Treadling Draft for 8-Shaft Turned Taquete Scarf (repeat each block of 4 picks three times to elongate the pattern for this scarf)

Treadling Draft for 8-Shaft Turned Taquete Scarf (repeat each block of 4 picks three times to elongate the pattern for this scarf)

Notes on weaving the scarf:  I wove this scarf by using a warp of 8/2 Tencel, alternating light and dark colors (purple and off-white) with a sett of 40 ends per inch and an off-white 20/2 rayon weft at about 30 picks per inch.  The result is a warp-emphasis weave, the weft shows a little but the warp is what shows the most, and the scarf drapes nicely.  It was very easy to weave with  a light/medium beat, nice selvedges with no special threading or floating selvedges needed.  I twisted the fringes and washed the scarf by hand, let it hang to dry, and steam ironed it.  Shrinkage was about 10%.  The finished scarf is about 9-1/2 inches wide and 48 inches long plus the fringe.

Placemats woven on the same threading:  Keeping the same threading after cutting the scarf off the loom, I resleyed the warp to 30 ends per inch and tied on a new warp with a thicker, 8/4 cotton carpet warp and wove a couple of placemats using a 20/2 cotton weft at about 16 picks per inch.  I kept the treadling at only 1 repeat of each block in order to achieve a more squared pattern rather than an elongated one, repeating the first block several times for the borders.  These placemats turned out to be closer to being warp-faced than warp-emphasis – you can hardly see the weft, rather nice and sturdy, each one about 13 inches wide and 16 inches long plus an inch or so of fringe.  I like experimenting with setts, and turned taqueté is very satisfying in this regard.  Here’s a close-up and full view of one of these placemats:

Turned Taquete Placemat woven on 8 shafts, cotton, 2015

Turned Taquete Placemat woven on 8 shafts, cotton, 2015

Lastly, as a member of the Fine Threads Study Group at Complex Weavers, I challenged myself to design and weave something interesting for this year’s study and sample exchange – turned taqueté on 12 shafts:

Turned Taquete Scarf woven on 12 shafts, Tencel & cotton, 2015

Turned Taquete Scarf woven on 12 shafts, Tencel & cotton, 2015

Turned Taquete Scarf woven on 12 shafts, Tencel & cotton, 2015 (detail)

Turned Taquete Scarf woven on 12 shafts, Tencel & cotton, 2015 (detail)

The longest float in turned taqueté is three so it’s great for weaving soft and supple scarves as well as thicker and sturdier placemats.  Bonnie mentions in her article that even chenille works well as warp with this weave.  I may try some more color experiments next time, maybe dyeing or painting a warp or trying a variation of this weave.

Hope you enjoyed looking at my work and are inspired to try turned taqueté too.  See you next time!

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Taquete: I Wove Rugs on a Summer & Winter Threading

July 17, 2010

…but didn’t know it was called Taqueté.

In the early 90’s I wove several rugs and used Peter Collingwood’s book, The Techniques of Rugweaving, as my guide.  I especially liked the two-tie unit, four-end block weaves described in Chapter 8 that use the same threading system that is used in Summer & Winter (S&W).  The weave is weft-faced, without any tabby wefts, and when 2 weft colors are used, one weft color shows on one side and the other weft color on the reverse side.  Years later, as I was browsing through Weaver’s Magazine #42, the issue about rugs, I read that when S&W is used this way the structure is called Taqueté.  Taqueté can also be woven using finer yarns and one might not recognize it as a rug technique.

Since I already did S&W related posts (here and here), I thought it’s time to write about how I wove two of my small Taqueté rugs that are being used as meditation mats.  I wove a series of these in different colors and patterns on the same warp by rearranging the treadling blocks for each design.

RUG #1

Taquete Rug #1, Wool, 30″ x 32″, 1993

Taquete Rug #1 (detail showing both sides), Wool, 30″ x 32″, 1993

Profile Draft for Rug #1:

I originally designed these rugs on graph paper starting with a profile draft.  In this Rug there are 4 threading blocks – A, B, C, and D, and 4 treadling blocks – 1, 2, 3, and 4.  A total of 6 shafts and 8 treadles are needed to weave it on a treadle loom.  Here’s what my original profile draft looked like:

Profile Draft for Taquete Rug #1 (A-D threading blocks) (1-4 treadling blocks)

Partial Weaving Draft for Rug #1:

The  Draft below shows the threading to be 4 ends per block and may be repeated as many times as desired.  In this Rug it’s repeated only one time because at a sett of 4 e.p.i. that was enough to create the design that I wanted.  If read left to right, the threading goes like this:  Block A (1,3,2,3); Block B (1,4,2,4); Block C (1,5,2,5); and Block D (1,6,2,6)

The Draft below also shows the treadling to be 4 wefts per block that may be repeated as many times as desired.  For lack of space, this Draft does not show the actual number of times each block is repeated to create the design for this Rug which is 5 times (total of 20 wefts).  Note that 2 treadles are pressed at the same time for each weft because otherwise 16 treadles would be needed instead of only 8.  If read from top to bottom, the treadling goes like this:  Block 1:   lift shafts 1+3 together and throw a weft with the color indicated; lift shafts 1+(4,5&6) together and throw the second weft with the color indicated; lift shafts 2+3 and throw the third weft with the color indicated; and lift shafts 2+(4,5&6) together and throw the fourth weft with the color indicated.  Likewise, refer to the Draft for treadling Blocks 2, 3, and 4.

The Profile draft is a shorthand notation for a thread-by-thread draft (the Partial Weaving Draft here).  Once you know what each block represents you simply follow the block order in the Profile draft when threading and treadling.

Partial Weaving Draft for Taquete Rug #1

Weft-Faced View Profile Draft for Rug #1:

By entering information a particular way into my weaving program, namely in liftplan mode with alternating colors and in weft-faced view, an amazing profile draft is generated that can easily be changed and used with the block substitution feature to create other weave structures, not only Taqueté.

Weft-Faced View Profile Draft for Taquete Rug #1 (showing both sides)

RUG #2

Taquete Rug #2 (detail showing both sides), Wool, 30″ x 32″, 1993

Partial Weaving Draft and Weft-Faced View Profile Draft for Rug #2:

Although I wove this Rug on the same warp as Rug #1, it can easily be woven using only 3 shafts and 4 treadles because it’s really just the repetition of 1 threading block and 1 treadling block.  Again, for lack of space, the Partial Weaving Draft does not show the actual number of treadling repeats but together with the Weft-Faced View Profile Draft you get the idea:

Partial Weaving Draft for Taquete Rug #2

Weft-Faced View Profile Draft for Taquete Rug #2 (showing both sides)

Additional Notes:

For both these rugs I used 5/2 warp twist cotton tripled with a sett of 4 e.p.i. (ends per inch) for the warp, and a 4-ply light/medium rug wool tripled for the weft approximately 20 p.p.i. (picks or wefts per inch).  The finished rugs are 30″ x 32″ and each weighs about 3 lbs., nice and thick and comfortable to sit on.  I have also used linen for the warp when weaving larger rugs, but I heard that seine twine is also very good, even better because fringes don’t fray as much with less overall wear and tear over time.

My favorite large Taqueté rug that I wove in 1990 is in our living room and we really do use one side in the summer and turn it over to the reverse side in the winter because both sides are equally nice.  It’s the second image on my Gallery – 1985 & 1990 page.

By the way, I posted an image of a new shadow weave sample I wove this year for the Fine Threads Study group at Complex Weavers, it’s on my Gallery 2010 page, the fourth image down.

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